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Also in Italy, new laws came into force in 20 with significant changes in Italian law in matter of divorce: apart from shortening of the period of obligatory separation, are allowed other forms of getting a divorce – as an alternative to court proceedings, i.e.the negotiations with the participation of an advocate or agreement made before the registrar of Public Registry Office.In most jurisdictions, a divorce must be certified (or ordered by a Judge) by a court of law to come into effect.The terms of the divorce are usually determined by the courts, though they may take into account prenuptial agreements or post-nuptial agreements, or simply ratify terms that the spouses may have agreed to privately (this is not true in the United States, where agreements related to the marriage typically have to be rendered in writing to be enforceable).Countries that have relatively recently legalized divorce are Italy (1970), Portugal (1975), Brazil (1977), Spain (1981), Argentina (1987), Where it is seen as a contract, the refusal or inability of one spouse to perform the obligations stipulated in the contract may constitute a ground for divorce for the other spouse.In contrast, in some countries (such as Sweden, divorce is purely no fault.In 2011, in the US, the Coalition for Divorce Reform was established, describing itself as an organization "dedicated to supporting efforts to reduce unnecessary divorce and promote healthy marriages." In some jurisdictions, the courts will seldom apply principles of fault, but might willingly hold a party liable for a breach of a fiduciary duty to his or her spouse (for example, see Family Code Sections 7 of the California Family Code).Grounds for divorce differs from state to state in the U. Some states have no-fault divorce; some states require a declaration of fault on the part of one partner or both; some states allow either method.
In some other countries, when the spouses agree to divorce and to the terms of the divorce, it can be certified by a non-judiciary administrative entity.
Divorce laws are not static; they often change reflecting evolving social norms of societies.
In the 21st century, many European countries have made changes to their divorce laws, in particular by reducing the length of the necessary periods of separation, e.g., Scotland in 2006 (1 or 2 years from the previous 2 or 5 years); France in 2005 (2 years from the previous 6 years), Bulgaria also modified its divorce regulations in 2009.
Before the late 1960s, nearly all countries that permitted divorce required proof by one party that the other party had committed an act incompatible to the marriage.
This was termed "grounds" for divorce (popularly called "fault") and was the only way to terminate a marriage.